4000. Open the.license file located at Navi-Sailor\bin\License.Data\license.xls and verify that the
Navi-Sailor 4000 ECDIS I with Licence Wf43 is valid. The license information is stored in the.
Navi-Sailor 4000 ECDIS I with Licence Wf43 .
Tranas navi sailor 4000 ecdis i free download. Transas navi sailor ecdis i. Navi-Sailor 4000 ECDIS (v.3.01.350). Utility.1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to a fuel cell system and a method of operating the fuel cell system, and more particularly, to a fuel cell system and a method of operating the fuel cell system which has a quick response time during start-up.
2. Description of the Related Art
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that directly converts chemical energy stored in hydrocarbon fuel into electrical energy without combustion. Generally, the fuel cell includes an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte. In one type of fuel cell called a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (“PEMFC”), hydrogen is supplied to the anode as fuel and oxygen is supplied to the cathode as an oxidant. The oxygen can be supplied in a pure form (i.e., O2) or as air (i.e., O2 mixed with N2). Hydrogen is consumed at the anode catalyst, while oxygen is consumed at the cathode catalyst. The catalytic reactions at the anode and cathode are described by the equations below.
Anode Reaction: H2→2H++2e−
Cathode Reaction: 2H++2e−+(½)O2→H2O
The overall fuel cell reaction can be written as follows:
Due to the chemical nature of a PEMFC, the fuel cell is generally operated at relatively low temperatures. The PEMFC also requires a continuous supply of humidified air (or a mixture of air and pure oxygen) on the cathode side of the membrane. In a typical PEMFC, the cathode side air flow is on the order of 0.5 to 5 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) at a relative humidity of 50-60%. 0b46394aab