From Signal to Symbol The State House bell, now known as the Liberty Bell, rang in the tower of the Pennsylvania State House. Today, we call that building Independence Hall. Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly Isaac Norris first ordered a bell for the bell tower in 1751 from the Whitechapel Foundry in London. That bell cracked on the first test ring. Local metalworkers John Pass and John Stow melted down that bell and cast a new one right here in Philadelphia. It's this bell that would ring to call lawmakers to their meetings and the townspeople together to hear the reading of the news. Benjamin Franklin wrote to Catherine Ray in 1755, "Adieu, the Bell rings, and I must go among the Grave ones and talk Politicks." It's not until the 1830s that the old State House bell would begin to take on significance as a symbol of liberty.
The Crack No one recorded when or why the Liberty Bell first cracked, but the most likely explanation is that a narrow split developed in the early 1840s after nearly 90 years of hard use. In 1846, when the city decided to repair the bell prior to George Washington's birthday holiday (February 23), metal workers widened the thin crack to prevent its farther spread and restore the tone of the bell using a technique called "stop drilling". The wide "crack" in the Liberty Bell is actually the repair job! Look carefully and you'll see over 40 drill bit marks in that wide "crack". But, the repair was not successful. The Public Ledger newspaper reported that the repair failed when another fissure developed. This second crack, running from the abbreviation for "Philadelphia" up through the word "Liberty", silenced the bell forever. No one living today has heard the bell ring freely with its clapper, but computer modeling provides some clues into the sound of the Liberty Bell.
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Today, the Liberty Bell weighs 2,080 pounds (940 kg). Its metal is 70% copper and 25% tin, with the remainder consisting of lead, zinc, arsenic, gold, and silver. It hangs from what is believed to be its original yoke, made from American elm. Although the crack in the bell appears to end at the abbreviation "Philada" in the last line of the inscription, that is merely the widened crack, filed out during the 19th century to allow the bell to ring. A hairline crack, extending through to the inside of the bell, continues towards the right and gradually moves to the top of the bell, through the word "and" in "Pass and Stow," then through the word "the" before the word "Assembly", and finally through the letters "rty" in the word "Liberty". The crack ends near the attachment with the yoke.
I have a 1916 magazine advertisement that shows a little black boy, softly caricatured, drinking from an ink bottle. The bottom caption reads, "Nigger Milk." I bought the print in 1988 from an antique store in LaPorte, Indiana. It was framed and offered for sale at $20. The salesclerk wrote, "Black Print," on the receipt. I told her to write, "Nigger Milk Print."
I have long felt that Americans, especially whites, would rather talk about slavery than Jim Crow. All ex-slaves are dead. They do not walk among us, their presence a reminder of that unspeakably cruel system. Their children are dead. Distanced by a century and a half, the modern American sees slavery as a regrettable period when blacks worked without wages. Slavery was, of course, much worse. It was the complete domination of one people by another people -- with the expected abuses that accompany unchecked power. Slavers whipped slaves who displeased them. Clergy preached that slavery was the will of God. Scientists "proved" that blacks were less evolved, a subspecies of the human race and politicians agreed. Teachers taught young children that blacks were inherently less intelligent. Laws forbade slaves, and sometimes free blacks, from learning to read and write, possessing money, and arguing with whites. Slaves were property -- thinking, suffering property. The passing of a century and a half affords the typical American enough "psychological space" to deal with slavery; when that is not sufficient, a sanitized version of slavery is embraced.
In 2003, David Chang created a national uproar with his game, Ghettopoly. Unlike Monopoly, the popular family game, Ghettopoly debases and belittles racial minorities, especially blacks. Ghettopoly has seven game pieces: Pimp, Hoe, 40 oz, Machine Gun, Marijuana Leaf, Basketball, and Crack. One of the game's cards reads, "You got yo whole neighborhood addicted to crack. Collect $50 from each playa." Monopoly has houses and hotels; Ghettopoly has crack houses and projects. The distributors advertise Ghettopoly this way: "Buying stolen properties, pimpin hoes, building crack houses and projects, paying protection fees and getting car jacked are some of the elements of the game. Not dope enough? If you don't have the money that you owe to the loan shark you might just land yourself in da Emergency Room." The game's cards depict blacks in physically caricatured ways. Hasbro, the owner of the copyright for Monopoly, has sued David Chang to make him stop distributing Ghettopoly.
Understanding how to write a great screenplay takes time and practice. One of the best ways to improve your screenwriting skills is to read great scripts, and the other is to read great screenwriting books. Every year around awards season, the nominated screenplays are released for anyone to download for free. Sometimes they're released before the nominations come out, so always do a quick search online, or visit our partner The Script Lab's Free Screenplay Library and search for the scripts you want to read.
The next best way to improve your screenwriting skills is to read books that are written for the sole purpose of teaching new writers how to write. But don't stress if the first book you read doesn't completely speak to you. Some ways might be too rigid, some too loose. You should read a couple different ones, maybe even this whole list, before you decide what screenwriting "rules" to embrace and which ones to discard. We've interviewed all the top experts - from book authors to award-winning screenwriters. Here's our roundup of the best screenwriting books.
Perhaps the best-known book on screenwriting is Save The Cat. The 'Save the Cat' philosophy is based on those scenes where we meet a hero and the hero does something (like saving a cat) that defines who they are and makes the audience care about them. While there is no one secret formula to a successful screenplay, this book gives screenwriters a great overview of potential beats that could be explored throughout the screenplay. Some writers swear by it, while others don't want anything to do with it. Either way, it's a must-read, whether you agree with it or not. Get the book here.
Multiple Emmy- and Golden Globe-winning writer/producer Erik Bork (HBO's Band of Brothers) takes a different approach to the craft of screenwriting with his book. Instead of focusing on structure, scenes or navigating the business, he thinks the most important party of the process is before any of the above comes into play. His industry experience and time as a screenwriting instructor gave him unique insight into the craft of screenwriting and to him, it's all about selecting that initial idea. A clever, well thought out initial idea is what will motivate Hollywood "gatekeepers" to read your script. Of course, it needs to be well written enough to keep them holding on past page 10, but you need a great idea first.
One of the most memorable writers, William Goldman once said, "The single most important fact, perhaps, of the entire movie industry: NOBODY KNOWS ANYTHING. Not one person knows for a certainty what's going to work." With that said, no one knows the screenwriter's Hollywood better than Mr. Goldman. Known for Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, The Princess Bride and All the President's Men, Goldman is a legend in the industry. In this book, he shows how films get made and what element to include in your screenplay if you want to make it great. This was one of the first screenwriting books that offered a personal view of not just the screenwriting trade but working in Hollywood, so some anecdotes might be a little dated, but it's a captivating read that will expand your perspective. Get the book here.
While there are many screenwriting books in this list that talk about the craft and business of screenwriting, not all of them talk about how to pitch your screenplay and how to handle the professional space. If there was a formula or a step-by-step process, that would be amazing, but there's not. But you can read this book to unlock some much-warranted guidance when it comes to your screenwriting career. Lee Jessup works with both novice and professional writers, so she knows exactly what she's talking about. Get the book here.
Indeed, security experts have developed post-quantum codes that even a quantum computer will not be able to crack. So it is already possible to safeguard data today against future attack by quantum computers. But these codes are not yet used as standard.
There is widespread disagreement about when the first crack appeared on the Bell. Hair-line cracks on bells were bored out to prevent expansion. However, it is agreed that the final expansion of the crack which rendered the Bell unringable was on Washington's Birthday in 1846.
There are three predominant styles and methods of kintsugi: crack, piece method, and joint-call. While, in each case, gold, silver, or platinum-dusted epoxy is used to fix the broken pottery, the techniques and finished results vary. 2b1af7f3a8