Autodesk 3ds Max, formerly 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models, games and images. It is developed and produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment. It has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and must be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is frequently used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios, and architectural visualization studios. It is also used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. 3ds Max features shaders (such as ambient occlusion and subsurface scattering), dynamic simulation, particle systems, radiosity, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, and its own scripting language.
And it is much easier to work with than Softimage|3D 4 and XSI 3.x; the former had an incredibly sluggish GUI (on a Xeon X5670 machine? come on!!) and the latter's crack relied on parallel ports the workstation didn't have, probably to emulate its dongle.
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In the last few decades, the material properties, as well as the structural performance of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete have been extensively investigated in laboratory environments. However, experiments are in general expensive and are limited to specific test configurations. Therefore, a variety of numerical models for concrete cracking, aiming at reliable prognoses of the fracture processes of concrete structures with or without reinforcement, have been proposed (see, e.g., [3,4,5,6,7,8] for an overview). The majority of models for structural analyses of FRC are conceptually based on cracking models for plain concrete, modifying the post-peak regime of the constitutive law in terms of an increase of the residual stress and the fracture energy, so as to represent the enhanced ductility of FRC at a phenomenological level [9,10,11,12]. To enable the analysis of the influence of specific fiber cocktails on the macroscopic material behavior of FRC, computational meso-scale models for FRC have been proposed, which include the explicit description of individual fibers within representative elementary volumes of FRC samples [13,14,15]. However, for computational analyses on a structural level, a multiscale-oriented approach allowing one to formulate the behavior of fiber and matrix and their mutual interactions at different length scales as proposed in  is required. Recently, the authors proposed a multilevel modeling framework, in which, at the lowest scale, the pullout behavior of different fiber types interacting with the concrete matrix at different inclination angles is considered by appropriate sub-models with the model information being appropriately transmitted across the scales depending on the specific fiber cocktail .
As an essential component of the modeling framework presented in , interface solid elements (ISE), i.e., degenerated solid finite elements with almost zero thickness proposed by Manzoli et al. [18,19,20,21], have been adopted and successfully applied to the failure analysis of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete structures. As compared with classical zero-thickness interface elements, ISE can be easily implemented based on standard finite element codes by using solid finite elements for the bulk material and for the interfaces. Employing a continuum damage model to approximate the interface degradation, it allows one to describe the interface behavior completely in the continuum framework. Consequently, those specific variational formulations, discrete constitutive relations and integration rules to obtain the internal forces associated with classical interface elements are not required. The artificial initial stiffness that is normally required in zero-thickness interface elements is automatically included in the elastic stiffness of ISE [18,20,21]. It is recognized that the interface solid elements share similar features with zero-thickness interface elements. The most notable advantage of this class of models is the fact that no special procedure for the tracking of evolving cracks is necessary. This contributes to its robustness and allows for 3D fracture simulations characterized by complex fracture patterns (see, e.g., ). The crack pattern obtained via discrete representations along prescribed element edges evidently suffers from a certain dependence on the mesh topology. However, the influence on the overall macroscopic material response is tolerable if unstructured meshes with reasonable resolution are used [20,23]. Furthermore, for analyses of heterogeneous materials on the mesoscale level, it was shown that the mesh-dependence of interface elements becomes less of a concern once the mesoscale heterogeneity is modeled [24,25,26]. This drawback can be alleviated, e.g., by continuously modifying the local finite element topology at the crack tip to enforce the alignment between the element edges and the crack propagation direction [27,28,29]. Alternatively, mesh refinement, at the cost of increased computational expense, can be applied to resolve the large elements along the crack path [30,31,32]. The increased computational demand resulting from the duplication of finite element nodes can be controlled by pre-defining the interface elements only in vulnerable regions or applying an adaptive algorithm for the mesh processing during computation [33,34,35,36,37].
Crack bridging model: (a) position and inclination of a fiber with respect to the crack; (b) unit area of an opening crack in FRC intercepted by fibers with length Lf; (c) sketch of the obtained traction-separation relations for different FRC composites.
All bulk elements are considered to be linear elastic. The constitutive behavior of the degenerated solid elements is cast in a continuum form equipped with a damage law, which allows one to approximate the behavior of interfacial degradation mechanisms involved during the cracking in FRC materials:
It is noticed that the post-cracking behavior of the FRC material is highly nonlinear; such nonlinearity frequently results in numerical difficulties while performing structural simulations. In the present work, the IMPL-EXintegration scheme  is implemented in the context of the interface solid element for FRC. Consequently, due to the explicit nature of damage models, the computation does not require any iteration, neither on the structural level, nor on the constitutive level. This ensures the robustness and efficiency of the computational model in failure analyses of FRC structures even in the case of complex crack configurations.
Analysis of a three-point bending test on a notched FRC beam: (a) photo of the failure state of the specimen and the contour plot of the crack-opening magnitude in the deformed configuration; (b) crack patterns represented by the activated interface solid elements at different loading states; (c) comparison between the force-displacement relations predicted by the proposed model and from the experiments  for three different fiber cocktails.
Here, ω denotes the relative problem size while using the adaptive algorithm as compared with the case of full fragmentation. With the growth of the macroscopic crack, ISEs are gradually generated and located along the potential crack path. When the applied displacement reaches 0.6 mm, the propagating macroscopic crack almost penetrates the sample. Afterwards, the major crack continues to open, and the structure fails rapidly; the relative problem sizes change marginally, approaching approximately 34% for the number of nodes and 40% for the number of elements, respectively, at the end of simulation when u = 1 mm at increment i = 1000:
Results of the 2D simulation of uniaxial tension on a square specimen: (a) computed structural responses and crack pattern; (b) evolution of the relative problem sizes regarding the system degree of freedom and number of elements, as well as all of the created interface solid elements (blue lines in the mesh). 2b1af7f3a8